認識葡萄品種(Grape Varieties)


 
葡萄品種(Grape Varieties) 

全球各地種植來釀製葡萄酒的葡萄品種有上千種,其中以歐洲根源的葡萄品種(Vitis Vinifera)居多。
從葡萄品種的外觀顏色看來,可以將葡萄品種分類成兩大類
- 色澤深的葡萄品種(簡稱紅葡萄)
- 色澤淺的葡萄品種(簡稱白葡萄)
 
   

紅葡萄品種

卡本內蘇為翁(Cabernet Sauvignon)
源自法國波爾多產區,顆粒小、皮厚,是全球種植最為廣泛的葡萄品種之一。釀成的酒款色澤深、酒體濃郁、單寧澀度高,也具較長的陳年潛力。

梅洛(Merlot)
源自法國波爾多產區,是當地種植最多的葡萄品種。早熟易種植,釀成的酒款充滿果香、酒體圓潤柔順、甜美可口,在全球受到歡迎。

梅貝克(Malbec)
源自法國西南部,在波爾多產區大多與其他葡萄品種做混調,為酒款注入色澤與單寧。但在阿根廷的葡萄酒產區門多薩(Mendoza),它以高比例、一支獨秀的方式躍上國際舞台,成為阿根廷的代表性酒款。


黑皮諾(Pinot Noir)
性格無常的黑皮諾,對於氣候環境相當敏感,產自法國勃根地產區。葡萄皮薄且脆弱,比較適合種植於寒冷地區,在法國香檳區、阿爾薩斯也有種植;美國奧勒岡州、紐西蘭以及澳洲的維多莉亞洲,也生產品質卓越的黑皮諾。它釀製出來的酒款顏色較淺,酸度高,單寧較細緻;常帶有櫻桃、覆盆子的香氣。

嘉美(Gamay)
源自法國勃根地薄酒萊產區,14世紀時就曾被提及的葡萄品種,相當容易生產;釀製出來的酒款是帶有熱帶果香的清淡酒體,酒精度低、酸度高,必須趁年輕飲用。在加州種植的Gamay Beaujolais葡萄果實被誤認為是同樣的品種,經過證實後,發現是加州較早熟的黑皮諾(Pinot Noir)品種。

希哈/席拉(Syrah/Shiraz)
葡萄名由來自伊朗的城市色拉子,七千年前當地附近就有葡萄酒的釀製,後來被一位十字軍戰士引進到南法,種植於隆河北部的艾米達吉。釀製成的酒款,色澤深,在氣候涼爽的地區,帶有胡椒及香料的芳香味;在氣候較溫暖的地區,酒香帶有熟成果味且甜美。希哈仍主要種植於隆河北部,被單獨釀成酒,偶而也添加少比例的維歐尼耶品種,豐富酒款的香氣、讓酒變得較圓潤;在南隆河,會混合其他品種如格那希釀製成酒。希哈也被廣泛種植於澳洲,在當地被稱為席拉,通常被拿來與卡本內蘇維翁品種混釀。

格那希(Grenache/Garnacha)
產自西班牙的品種,也分布於法國南部及地中海地區。如同皮諾家族品種,也被分成黑、灰、白格那希;其中以黑格那希最為常見。晚熟的特性,適合種植於炎熱乾燥的環境,通常帶有辛香料、漿果味;酒精濃度高、酸度及單寧低,大多和其他品種混釀。

慕維得爾(Mourvèdre)
源自西班牙,法國的地中海沿岸也有種植。釀製的酒款色澤深、酒精及酸度都高,單寧澀,帶有野味與大地氣息等氣味;適合存放。在法國南部的隆河產區,是以混合型態出現於當地出名酒款中。在澳洲,通常被用來單一釀製成酒。

田帕尼優(Tempranillo)
源自西班牙,較其他紅葡萄品種早熟數星期,因此有著西班牙文「提早」的意思。廣泛種植於西班牙北部與中部,是西班牙最具代表性的品種;因為不適應炎熱且乾燥的環境,所以特別適合種植於涼爽的地區,西班牙北邊的利奧哈產區是它著名的產地。色澤深且皮厚,能釀製出濃郁複雜的酒,帶有莓果、李子、菸草、皮革、香料等氣味;通常與其他品種混調,且適合存放於橡木桶中熟成,酒款也隨著橡木桶的差異性而釋放不同的木桶香氣。

山吉歐維西(Sangiovese)
衍自「羅馬神話眾神之王-朱比特之血(sanguis Jovis)」的聳動名稱,是義大利種植最多的葡萄品種,它的發源地,在義大利中部的托斯卡尼地區;隨著歷史演變成多樣的變種葡萄品種,當中又以布雷諾(Brunello)最為出色。小顆粒、藍黑色的果實,成熟較慢,偏好炎熱乾燥的氣候,卻也容易因量產而降低果實的品質。釀製成的酒款,年輕時有著如櫻桃李子般的果香,還帶點香料、菸草味,酸度高、單寧澀;但山吉歐維西釀製成的酒款風貌,就如同它多樣的變種品種,從清淡順口的簡單易飲型到濃厚強勁耐久存的頂級珍釀型,各自綻放不同的光芒。

奈比歐露(Nebbiolo)
種植於義大利西北邊的皮耶蒙產區,名字由來自當地採收季節時,常出現的「霧氣」。釀製的酒,被認定為義大利最優質的紅酒,主要產自皮耶蒙的巴洛洛(Barolo)及巴巴瑞斯克(Barbaresco)地區;色澤不深,酸度與酒精濃度都高、年輕時單寧艱澀,帶有瀝青及玫瑰花的氣味,是濃郁且陳年潛力長的酒。通常必須要經過數年的時間,讓單寧柔順,成熟的酒馥郁果香、花香及辛香料味,非常獨特驚人。

巴爾貝拉(Barbera)
義大利種植第二多的葡萄品種,主要產自義大利西北邊的皮耶蒙地區,巴爾貝拉阿斯悌(Barbera d'Asti)是它最著名的產地。產量穩定,釀成的酒色澤深紅,但單寧低,年輕時馥郁新鮮的紅色與黑色漿果味,適合年輕時飲用;但它的高酸度,也經得起長期存放。在加州也有種植巴爾貝拉,普遍被釀製成平日佐餐酒。

黑達歐拉(Nero d’Avola)
來自義大利西西里島南端的歐拉(Avola),偏愛炎熱乾燥、貧瘠的環境,現在廣泛種植於西西里島,釀製成的酒,酒體飽滿,有李子與胡椒的香氣,單寧甜美。

金粉黛(Zinfendal)
長久以來,時常與美國加州冠上等號的葡萄品種,是在1820s從奧地利引進美國東岸,1830s才開始種植於加州,成長快速,讓它成為當地種植面積最廣的葡萄品種。典型的金粉黛酒帶有極高的酒精濃度,豐沛的果味及辛香料味,被釀製成白金粉黛型的甜粉紅酒、清淡日常紅酒、濃郁酒體的干紅酒,甚至是像波特型的甜紅酒。隨著釀酒技術的進步,現在的金粉黛在強勁濃烈的酒精濃度下,也能展現熟成的果香、圓潤柔順的單寧,口感豐腴肥美。

小維鐸(Petit Verdot)
在法國波爾多屬於小角色的葡萄品種,具較晚熟的特性,能為酒款增添酸度、平衡酒質。當它熟成良好時,也能夠釀造出色澤深、單寧高的酒,在氣候較溫暖的新興葡萄酒產國,被單獨用來釀製成酒。


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